At its simplest, biotechnology is technology based on biology – Biotechnology harnesses cellular and biomolecular processes to develop technologies and products that helps improve the quality of human lives and the health of our planet. We have used the biological processes of microorganisms for more than 6,000 years to make useful food products, such as bread and cheese, and to preserve dairy products. Modern Biotechnology provides breakthrough products and technologies to combat debilitating and rare diseases, reduce our environment footprint, feed the hungry, use less and cleaner energy, and have safer, cleaner and more efficient manufacturing processes. Biotechnology is a scientific revolution which gives multiple opportunities to meet the challenges around the globe in all sectors of life sustaining activities such as food, healthcare, environment etc. The ability to manipulate the genetic material of an organism to achieve specified outcome is one of the exciting applications of this field. The most significant achievement is an outcome of human genome project identifying about 25000 genes responsible to regulate human health by orchestration of genes inside the cells, a most exciting research to get explored. This will go a long way in revolutionizing the understanding of human development and help in monitoring and identifying the innovative treatment for life threatening diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorder like schizophrenia, influenza like swine flu etc. The applications of Biotechnology are vast and simply mind-boggling. On one hand, it caters to the industrial sector such as food and beverages industry, textiles industry, biological products, medicines and pharmaceuticals while on the other hand it caters to the requirements of agriculture, animal husbandry, nutrition and environmental conservation. The list is a long and an envious one.
The science of biotechnology can be broken down into sub disciplines called red, white, green, and blue.
There is a wide scope of graduates and post-graduates in biotechnology, bioinformatics and medical biotechnology in the corporate sector as well as in institutions of higher learning in India and abroad. Biotechnology in India is poised to take a big leap and it offers great opportunities and challenges to contribute in R&D and clinical research, quality-cum-sales, marketing and regulatory. India is among the top 12 biotech destinations worldwide and third largest in the Asia-Pacific region and is emerging as a potential hub for outsourcing of clinical trials, conduct research and manufacturing.